Definition of Human Trafficking
Human trafficking is modern-day slavery, in which victims are subjected to force, fraud or coercion for the purpose of forced labor or sexual exploitation. It is the fastest growing criminal industry worldwide.
Types of Human Trafficking
• Forced labor or involuntary servitude is the leading form of trafficking in the world;
• Bonded labor or debt bondage utilizes a bond or debt to keep a person under subjugation—migrant laborers are especially vulnerable to bonded labor or debt bondage;
• Involuntary domestic servitude —the informal workplace is conducive to exploitation;
• Forced child labor includes any child subject to involuntary servitude, debt bondage, or slavery;
• Sex trafficking comprises a significant portion of trafficking and can occur alongside debt bondage;
• Child sex trafficking includes commercial sexual exploitation of children and child sex tourism.
Indicators of a Potential Trafficking Victim
• Evidence of being controlled or the inability to move or leave a job;
• bruises or other signs of physical abuse;
• fear or depression;
• not speaking on own behalf and/or non-English speaking; and
• no passport or other forms of identification or documentation.
Number of Victims and Challenges in Identifying Victims
• Approximately 600,000 to 800,000 victims are trafficked annually across borders
• 14,500 to 17,500 into the U.S.
• It is difficult to estimate the number of victims because trafficking is under-reported: victims often fear deportation or retribution and suffer from self-blame and lack of trust.
• Data collection is inadequate in many places.
Rescue & Restore Program Purpose
1. To identify human trafficking victims and connect them to services throughout the Sacramento region.
2. Provide emergency services
3. Provide training and outreach to community partners
Sacramento – Why a Trafficking Hub?
Sacramento is a potential hub for trafficking because it is a major crossroads and gateway to the Central Valley: traffickers transport victims along Hwy 5 and Hwy 80 to Reno. The Sacramento Coalition’s 2008 survey of law enforcement, health providers and social service agencies found that: 1) 100+ victims were served in the 12 months preceding the survey; 2) half the cases involved sex exploitation and half labor; 3) only 5% of respondents had training on trafficking; 4) many respondents had contact with victims, but did not realize it until the survey.
California- Why a Trafficking Destination?
California is a top destination for traffickers due to the state’s international border, major harbors and airports, powerful economy and increasing immigrant population (California Alliance to Combat Trafficking & Slavery Task Force 2007).
• The Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) of 2000, 2003 and 2005 prosecutes traffickers, protects victims and prevents trafficking, making it a federal crime and victims eligible for federally-funded benefits. The 2008 TVPRA provides assistance for child victims and enhances the ability to criminally punish traffickers.
• California enacted AB 22 (2005) making human trafficking a felony and assisting victims with benefits. SB 1569 (2007) created a state-funded program for non-certified victims, extending eligibility for benefits and services.
If you think you have come into contact with a victim of human trafficking, please call:
• WEAVE: (916) 920-2952.
• National Human Trafficking Resource Center Hotline: 1-888-3737-888